Battery Sulfation

HOW BATTERIES DIE FROM SULFATION

Batteries tend to be in a state of discharge for much longer periods of time than when it is being charged. Hence, lead sulfate (PbSO4) is produced faster than it can be reverted into lead (Pb), lead dioxide (PbO2), and water, see equations below:

Charging:
2PbSO4 + 2H20 → Pb + PbO2 + 2H2SO4

Discharging:
Pb + PbO2 + 2H2SO4 → 2PbSO4 + 2H20

When the lead sulfate is left sitting for long periods of time, the initially spongy lead sulfate hardens and forms crystals. Unlike the spongy lead sulfate, these crystals cannot be reverted back to active material (lead and lead dioxide). More crystals on lead plates mean less active material is left to be used for the battery’s chemical reaction. A battery is effectively dead when there is simply not enough active material left!

This process, also known as sulfation, is the main cause why batteries fail prematurely!

How Batteries Die From Sulfation

Stage 1: Spongy Sulfation
Stage 1: Spongy Sulfation
  • Lead sulfate is still in spongy form.
  • Can be converted back to lead, lead dioxide and water when the battery is charged.
  • Very low internal impedance (usually < 6 mΩ).
Stage 2: Barrier Sulfation
  • Covalent bonds form and small crystals start to appear on lead plates.
  • Higher internal impedance than Spongy Sulfation.
  • May not be able to crank a car.
Stage 3: Crystalized Sulfation
  • Large crystals with very strong bonds form on the lead plates.
  • Very little surface area where chemical reactions can take place.
  • Very high internal impedance.
  • Battery can no longer crank a car.
12V Infinitum Desulfator

The Proven Remedy To Reverse Sulfation

The Infinitum Desulfator Battery Life Optimizer prevents sulfation on batteries and removes the existing lead sulfate crystals, ensuring a battery with maximum lifespan and optimum performance.

Infinitum Desulfators generates Amplitude Modulated Pulses (AMP) at the resonant frequency of the crystals to shatter the covalent bonds that hold it together. This allows the lead sulfate to be reconverted once the battery is charged. A battery free from lead sulfate crystals will have its lifespan stretched to its maximum! No more premature failure due to sulfation!

This desulfation process can double or triple your battery lifespan, maximizing your savings.

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